# Search # OFFSET

Returns the source value from a specific number of periods before or after the current period. Using a positive offset value refers to later periods, a negative value refers to earlier periods. A zero value refers to the current period.

A fill value can be specified for when the offset result is outside the timescale.

## Syntax

`OFFSET(x,n,z) `

where:

• x: Source line item to offset
• n: Offset value
• z: Fill value to use if the result is outside the time scale

## Format

Input Format Output Format

x: Number, Boolean, date, time period, list, text

n: Number

z: Number

Matches the data format used by argument x

## Arguments

The function uses the following arguments:

• x: Line item: Date, text-formatted, numeric, Boolean, hard-coded data, or variable
• n: Number: Numeric line item, property, or expression
• z: Number: Numeric line item, property, or expression

## Constraints

The function has the following constraints:

• OFFSET only returns a single value, and so can apply to any data type.
• The time range providing arguments to a line item must match the time range for the result line item. Any formula that conflicts with this rule will be rejected. For more information see the Search page.
• A non-time series function, used as a sub-expression of this function, must use the same time range as the line item to which the formula is applied. Combining time series functions and non-time series functions with a time range could return an unexpected result or an error message. For more information see the Time Ranges and Time Series Functions page.

## Example

The formula

`OFFSET(x, 2, z)`

returns the value in line item x from 2 time periods later than the current cell. If the time period to return is outside the model range, the value from line item z is used instead.

The formula

`OFFSET(x, -2, z)`

returns the value in line item x from 2 time periods prior to the current cell. If the time period to be read is outside the model range, the value from line item z is used instead.

The formula

`OFFSET(x, d, z)`

returns the value in line item x from the number of time periods in line item d. A negative value will reference a period prior to the current cell, a positive number will reference a period later than the current cell. If the time period to be read is outside the model date range, the value from line item z is used instead.